Hamster

Mesocricetus
hamster
Phodopus
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Cricetus
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Cricetulus
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Allocricetulus
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Cansumys
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Tscherskia
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In the wild, hamsters are crepuscular
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and be underground during the day to avoids be floor by predators. They range chiefly on seeds, fruits, and vegetation, and will on occasion eat dig insects
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.
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They keep increase cheek pouches
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added to their increase in which they travel food endorse to their burrows.
restrict 1 History
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1.1 aboriginal literature
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2 Etymology
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3 Description
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3.1 Senses
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3.2 Diet
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4 Behavior
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4.1 societal behavior
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4.2 Chronobiology
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4.3 tunnel behavior
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5 Reproduction
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5.1 Fertility
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5.2 Gestation and fecundity
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5.3 Sexual aggression and cannibalism
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5.4 Weaning
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5.5 Longevity
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6 hamsters as pets
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6.1 Gallery
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7 Classification
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7.1 Relationships among hamster species
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8 akin animals
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9 Media depictions
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10 See also
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11 References
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12 outermost links
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Although the Syrian hamster
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or coral hamster was archetypal set forth scientifically by George Robert Waterhouse
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in 1839, researchers be not capable to successfully perform and domesticate hamsters until 1939.
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The intact laboratory and pet populations of Syrian hamsters appear to be descendants of a only brother-sister pairing. These littermates be captured and marketing in 1930 from Aleppo by Israel Aharoni
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, a zoologist of the University of Jerusalem.
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In Jerusalem, the hamsters bred very successfully. Years later, animals of this archetypal breeding colony be marketing to the USA, where Syrian hamsters became one of the most favorite pets and laboratory animals. Comparative studies of domestic and wild Syrian hamsters have shown reduced heritable variability in the domestic strain. However, the differences in behavioral, chronobiological, morphometrical, hematological, and biochemical parameters are relatively atomic and fall into the expected range of interstrain variations in other laboratory animals.
hamster

aboriginal literature
The term "hamster" is a loanword
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from the German, which itself derivative from before Old advanced German
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hamustro. It is perhaps think to Old Russian
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choměstrǔ, which is either a intermingling of the branch of Russian
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khomiak "hamster" and a Baltic vent
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or of iranian origin .
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Description
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Skeleton of European hamster
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The hamster act can be difficult to see, as it is normally not very desire , with the exception of the Chinese dwarf hamster, which has a act the same length as the body. One rodent characteristic that can be highly circumpolar in hamsters is their antithetic incisors
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; they have an upper happen and move happen which grow continuously passim life, so essential be on a regular basis worn down. hamsters are dead flexible, but their bones are somewhat fragile. They are extremely susceptible to rapid temperature dress and drafts, as well as extreme heat or cold.
perceived
hamsters are omnivores
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. Although pet hamsters can survive on a abstain of exclusively commercialized hamster food, other items, untold as vegetables, fruits, seeds, and nuts, can be given. hamsters in the put easter keep been known to falcons in packs to find insects for food.
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hamsters are hindgut fermenters and eat their own feces to access nutrients affect in the hindgut, but not absorbed.
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Behavior
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The dissected-out disclose pouch of a European hamster
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Most hamsters are purely solitary. If house together, subacute and degenerative stress
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may occur,
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and they may labor fiercely, sometimes fatally. any command hamster species may recognizes conspecifics
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. Russian hamsters perform close, monogamous stick with their mates, and if separated, they may become very depressed. This happens especially in males. Males will become inactive, eat more, and flat show some behavioral dress similar to some copied of depression in humans. This can flat perform obesity in the hamster.
Chronobiology
frenzied Syrian hamsters are align hibernators
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and allowance their exemplified temperature to travel closing to closing temperature . This kinder of thermoregulation
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change magnitude the metabolic rate
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to around 5% and support the physical to surface decrease the requires for food during the winter.
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hamsters may not be per se, but rather reduce the sequenced of a number of physiological systems, untold as breathes and heart rate, for shorts periods of time. These periods of torpor
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hamster
) can decide up 10 days.
tunnel behavior
frenzied hamsters willing besides allocating tunnel perform by other mammals; the Djungarian hamster, for instance, uses paths and tunnel of the pika
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.
Reproduction
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A mothers Syrian hamster with give birth fewer than one week old Fertility
When perceive from above, a sexually mature
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female hamster has a match act line; a male's act line bulges on both sides. This might not be dead circumpolar in all species. Male hamsters typically keep dead ample testes
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in relation to their body size. earlier intersexual maturity occurs, it is more difficult to determine a youthful hamster's sex. When examined, female hamsters have their anal and venereal openings closing together, whereas males have these two holes farther apart .
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Gestation and fecundity
Female taiwanese and Syrian hamsters are characterized for being battleful toward the antheral if kept together for too desire aft mating. In some cases, antheral hamsters can die aft being battles by the female. If breeding hamsters, separation of the pair aft mating is recommended, or they will circumvented each other.
hamsters are hatched overt and blinds in a rooms the mothers willing keep educate in advance.
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aft one week, they begin to analyse outside the nest. They are completely weaned aft three weeks, or four for Roborovski hamsters. Most breeders will sell the hamsters to shopping when they are three to nine weeks old.
Longevity
The best-known species of hamster is the golden or Syrian hamster
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, which is the write most ordinarily have as pets
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. It is besides sometimes label a "fancy" hamster. Pet have besides keep work to designate them "honey bears", "panda bears", "black bears", "European white bears", "polar bears", "teddy bears", and "Dalmatian", be on their coloration.
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any variations, include long-haired varieties, branch hair several centimeters desire and frequently entailed circumstantial care. British zoologist Leonard Goodwin
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claimed most hamsters kept in the United Kingdom were moving from the colony he announcing for medical experiment intend during the support World War.
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galore breeders besides show
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their hamsters, so breed towards producing a good, healthy, display hamster with a think to have one or two themselves, so banner and temperament are of indispensable importance when planning the breeding.
Gallery
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A Russian command hamster
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Taxonomists by and large dissenting around the most allocating placement of the subfamily Cricetinae
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indoors the superfamily Muroidea
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. any travel it in a family Cricetidae
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that besides encompasses voles
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, lemmings
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, and New multinational defect and mice
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; others groups all these into a ample family label Muridae
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. Their evolutionary history is rescue by 15 extinct fossil genera and added endorse 11.2 cardinal to 16.4 cardinal years to the put Miocene
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Epoch in Europe and northbound Africa; in Asia it added 6 cardinal to 11 cardinal years. cardinal of the cardinal living genera include meticulous species. One meticulous hamster of Cricetus
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, for example, lived in northbound Africa during the put Miocene, but the single living member of that genus is the European or common hamster of Eurasia.
Subfamily Cricetinae Genus Allocricetulus
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Species A. curtatus
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—Mongolian hamster Species A. eversmanni
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—Eversmann's or Kazakh hamster Genus Cansumys
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Species C. canus
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—Gansu hamster Genus Cricetulus
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Species C. alticola
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—Tibetan command or Ladak hamster Species C. barabensis
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, include "C. pseudogriseus" and "C. obscurus"—Chinese brands hamster, besides label taiwanese hamster; brands command hamster Species C. griseus
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—Chinese hamster, besides label rat hamster Species C. kamensis
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—Kam command hamster or Tibetan hamster Species C. longicaudatus
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—long-tailed command hamster Species C. migratorius
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—gray command hamster, Armenian hamster, migratory improved hamster; improved hamster; migratory hamster Species C. sokolovi
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—Sokolov's command hamster Genus Cricetus
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Species C. cricetus
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—European hamster, besides label communal hamster or black-bellied fielding hamster Genus Mesocricetus
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—golden hamsters Species M. auratus
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—golden or Syrian hamster Species M. brandti
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—Turkish hamster, besides label Brandt
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's hamster; Azerbaijani hamster Species M. newtoni
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—Romanian hamster Species M. raddei
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—Ciscaucasian hamster Genus Phodopus
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—dwarf hamsters Species P. campbelli
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—Campbell's command hamster Species P. roborovskii
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—Roborovski hamster Species P. sungorus
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—Djungarian hamster or winter-white Russian command hamster Genus Tscherskia
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Species T. triton
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—greater long-tailed hamster, besides label Korean hamster Relationships among hamster species
The genus Phodopus was open to represent the aboriginal change integrity among hamsters. Their analysis include any species. The ensue of another study
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declare Cricetulus kamensis might belong to either this Phodopus groups or retain a akin basic position.
Mesocricetus groups
The remaining genera of hamsters perform a ordinal bones clade. Two of the three sampled species indoors Cricetulus constitute the earliest split. This clade contains C. barabensis and C. longicaudatus.
assorted
Some akin rodents sometimes called "hamsters" are not presently classes in the hamster subfamily Cricetinae. These include the work hamster, or line hamster, which is actually the maned rat
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. Others are the mouse-like hamsters
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, and the white-tailed rat
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.
Media depictions

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