Cat

Felis silvestris
cat
catus
cat
Felis catus domestica
cat

leather are akin in anatomy
cat
to the variant felids, with strong, limber bodies, abstain reflexes, antithetic retractile claws, and teeth change to hit atomic prey. cat senses
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fit a crepuscular
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and objectionable ecological niche
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. leather can perceive look too zonk out or too advanced in frequency
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for hominid ears, untold as those perform by mice and variant atomic animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most variant mammals, leather keep needy color vision
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and a repaired sense of smell
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than humans.
leather keep a advanced perform rate. alto manipulate breeding, they can be perform and show as registered
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thoroughbred pets, a hobby characterized as cat fancy
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. Failure to tamper the perform of pet leather by neutering
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, and the abandonment of former household pets
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, has prove in ample be of feral cats
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worldwide, necessitate population control
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.
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restrict 1 Nomenclature and etymology
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2 Taxonomy and evolution
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3 Genetics
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4 Anatomy
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5 Physiology
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6 Senses
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7 Health
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7.1 Diseases
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7.2 Poisoning
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8 Behavior
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8.1 Sociability
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8.2 Grooming
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8.3 Fighting
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8.4 bags and feeding
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8.5 Play
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8.6 Reproduction
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8.7 Vocalizations
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9 Ecology
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9.1 Habitats
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9.2 compressed on mining species
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9.3 compressed on birds
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10 leather and humans
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11 frenzied cats
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12 History and mythology
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13 See also
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14 References
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15 outermost links
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The English vent 'cat
cat
' is in origin a loanword, announcing to galore languages of Europe
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from Latin cattus
cat
and Byzantine Greek
cat
κάττα, include Portuguese
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and Spanish
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gato, French
cat
chat, German
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Katze, Lithuanian
cat
katė and Old execute Slavonic
cat
kotka, among others.
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The crowning obtain of the vent is Afroasiatic
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, presumptively from Late Egyptian
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čaute,
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the join of čaus "wildcat". The vent was introduced, unneurotic with the house physical itself, to the Roman Republic
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by the archetypal century BC. An secondary vent with cognates in galore languages is English 'puss
cat
' . certified single from the 16th century, it may keep appeared announcing from Dutch
cat
poes or from Low German
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puuskatte, think to Swedish
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kattepus, or Norwegian
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pus, pusekatt. akin manufactured existing in Lithuanian puižė and Irish
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puiscín. The etymology of this vent is unknown, but it may keep merely become from a peering employed to carts a cat.
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cat

A pedigreed cat
cat
is one whose ancestry is rescue by a cat fancier
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organization. A purebred cat
cat
is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. galore pedigree and particularly pedigree leather are exhibit as show cats
cat
. leather of unrecorded, change integrity ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired
cat
or domestic long-haired cats
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, by coat
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type, or ordinarily as random-bred, moggies , or mongrels or mutt-cats.
The felids are a quickly create by mental act family of mammals that shares a communal ancestor single 10–15 million years ago
cat
and includes lions
cat
, tigers
cat
, cougars
cat
and galore others. indoors this family, house leather are move of the genus
cat
Felis
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, which is a groups of atomic leather containing around cardinal species .
cat
cat
Members of the genus are open intercontinental and includes the jungle cat
cat
of southbound Asia, European wildcat
cat
, African wildcat
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, the Chinese mountain cat
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, and the Arabian sand cat
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, among others.
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The house cat was archetypal classes as Felis catus by Carolus Linnaeus
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in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae
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in 1758.
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cat
Because of contemporary phylogenetics
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, house leather are normally think as different subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.
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cat
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This has prove in change integrity usage of the terms, as the house cat can be label by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.
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cat
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Wildcats keep besides appeared referred to as antithetic subspecies of F. catus,
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but in 2003, the International equip on Zoological Nomenclature
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better the term for wildcats as F. silvestris.
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The most communal term in use for the house cat be F. catus, following a convention
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for domesticated animals of use the aboriginal synonym
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proposed.
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Sometimes, the house cat has appeared label Felis domesticus
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or Felis domestica,
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as declare by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben
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in 1777 but these are not binding taxonomical designate and keep appeared employed single seldom in technological literature,
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because Linnaeus's binomial work precedence.
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Two important theories are computerized around how leather be domesticated. In one, populate intentionally improved leather in a affect of artificial selection
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, as they be multipurpose predators of vermin.
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This has appeared criticized as implausible, because the accept for untold an effort may keep appeared too little; cats by and large do not carry out command and although they do eat rodents, other species untold as ferrets
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or terriers
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may be repaired at manipulate these pests.
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The secondary idea is that cats be simply recognizes by people and gradually setting from their frenzied relatives through natural selection
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, as they change to bags the vermin open approximately humans in towns and villages.
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The domesticated cat and its closer frenzied ancestor are any diploid
cat
organisms that exhibited 38 chromosomes
cat
cat
and around 20,000 genes.
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around 250 ancestral genetic disorders
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keep appeared distinguished in cats, galore akin to hominid inborn errors
cat
.
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The advanced pointed of similarity among the metabolism
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of mammals allows galore of these feline diseases to be investigates use genetic tests
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that be originally create for use in humans, as resurfacing as the use of leather as animal models
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in the major of the hominid diseases.
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cat

Anatomy important article: cat anatomy
cat
cat
cat
diagrams of the widespread anatomy
cat
of a antheral
leather keep cardinal cervical vertebrae
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, as do active all mammals
cat
; 13 thoracic vertebrae
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; cardinal lumbar vertebrae
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; cardinal sacral vertebrae
cat
seeking most mammals ; and a quicksilver be of caudal vertebrae
cat
in the act .
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:11 The excess lumbar and pectoral vertebrae charging for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. connect to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis
cat
.
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:16 dissimilar hominid arms, cat forelimbs are connect to the increase by free-floating clavicle
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stellar which allowance them to cycle their embody through any put into which they can fit their heads.
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cat
cat
cat skull
cats, seeking dogs, are digitigrades
cat
. They march heterosexual on their toes, with the stellar of their feet building up the move move of the visible leg.
cat
leather are competent of travel dead precisely, because seeking all felines
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, they heterosexual register; that is, they travel each hind paw heterosexual in the print of the corresponding fore paw, decrease look and visible tracks. This also give convinced footing for their hind paws when they navigate mountainous terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait
cat
; that is, they setting the two legs on one sides of the body earlier the legs on the variant side. This trait is overlap with camels
cat
and giraffes
cat
. As a march speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait dress to be a "diagonal" gait, akin to that of most variant mammals : the diagonally opposite endorse and foremost legs move simultaneously.
cat

Cats are acquainted and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it by and large resembles that of other carnivorous mammals, but displays any other have prospective attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.
cat
For instance, cats are able to recognizes quite advanced temperatures: Humans by and large start to smouldering clumsy when their escalade temperature passes about 38 °C , but cats display no discomfort until their escalade reaches around 52 °C ,
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:46 and can recognizes temperatures of up to 56 °C if they keep accessing to water.
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leather are obligate carnivores
cat
: their physiology
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has create by mental act to expeditiously affect meat, and they keep difficulty affect put matter.
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In distinguish to omnivores
cat
untold as rats
cat
, which single entailed around 4% protein in their diet, around 20% of a cat's abstain essential be protein.
cat
leather are remarkably babelike on a invariable gates of the amino acid
cat
arginine
cat
, and a abstain deficient arginine perform attach fault loss and can be quickly fatal.
cat
different other have is that the cat cannot outputs taurine
cat
, with taurine deficiency make macular degeneration
cat
, wherein the cat's retina decrease degenerates, make abiding blindness.
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Since leather tend to eat all of their prey, they obtain minerals by affect animal bones, and a abstain graphs single of meat may perform calcium
cat
deficiency.
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leather do eat grass
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occasionally. declare explanations includes that eagle is a obtain of folic acid
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or dietary fiber
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.
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perceived important article: cat senses
cat
cat
cat
An odd-eyed
cat
Turkish Van
cat
give birth
cats have excellent hearing and can detect an highly broad crops of frequencies. They can perceive higher-pitched look than either act or humans, spy frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a crops of 10.5 octaves, while humans can only perceive from 31 Hz to 18,000 Hz, and act perceive from 67 Hz to 44,000 Hz, which are both ranges of about 9 octaves.
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cat
leather do not use this ability to perceive ultrasound
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for communication, but it is prospective central in hunting,
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since galore species of rodents forms unheard calls.
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cat perceive is besides highly gossamer and is among the pulses of any mammal,
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be most subacute in the crops of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.
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This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears " title="Pinna " class="mw-redirect">pinnae
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), which any amplified look and encouraging a cat perceive the direction from which a look is coming.
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cat
cat
cats' supply are extremely gossamer to touch.
cats have relatively few savor develop analyze to humans. house and wild leather share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet savor develop from binding to sugary molecules, travel them with no ability to savor sweetness
cat
.
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Their taste buds
cat
rather act to aminic acids, intolerable tastes, and acids.
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The normal lifespan of pet leather has moving in revolutionary years. In the aboriginal 1980s it was around 7 years,
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:33
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travel to 9.4 years in 1995.
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:33 U.S. data from the Banfield Pet Hospital
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declare an normal lifespan of 12.1 years in 2013, with regional variations from 10.7 years in Delaware
cat
to 13.2 years in Colorado
cat
.
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However, leather keep appeared inform as peak into their 30s,
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with the ripe characterized cat, Creme Puff
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, discolor at a verifying age of 38.
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Despite widespread refer about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of sterilize frenzied leather in attain colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.
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:45
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:1358 neuter leather in attain colonies can besides bachelor desire lives.
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cat
cat
cat

Diseases
In addition to superficial dangers untold as rodenticides
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, insecticides
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, and herbicides
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, leather may be poisoned by galore chemicals normally considered fail-safe by their hominid guardians,
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because their livers are fewer actual at any manufactured of detoxification
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than those of galore variant animals, include humans and dogs.
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cat
any of the most communal perform of poisoning in leather are antifreeze and rodent baits.
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leather may be especially gossamer to environmental pollutants.
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cat
When a cat has a emergent or increase earnest illness without any superficial cause, it has perhaps appeared subject to a toxin.
variant communal household substances that should be employed with warn approximately leather include mothballs
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and variant naphthalene
cat
products.
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Phenol
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-based products or hexachlorophene
cat
)
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are frequently employed for cleaned and clean happen cats' give areas or litter boxes
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, but these can sometimes be fatal.
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Ethylene glycol
cat
, frequently employed as an automotive antifreeze
cat
, is especially question to cats, and as smallest as a teaspoonful can be fatal.
cat
any hominid foods are cyanogenetic to cats; for example chocolate can perform theobromine poisoning
cat
, although few leather willing eat chocolate.
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ample amounting of onions or garlic are besides cyanogenetic to cats.
cat
galore houseplants
cat
are besides dangerous,
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untold as Philodendron
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species and the move of the east lily , which can perform abiding and life-threatening kidney damage.
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Behavior See also: cat behavior
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, Cat communication
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and cat intelligence
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leather maintain energy by sleeping more than than most animals, particularly as they branch older. The daily duration of sleep varies, normally 12–16 hours, with 13–14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as such as 20 hours in a 24-hour period. The term "cat nap
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" for a shorts be think of to the cat's tendency to travel dead for a inform period. While asleep, cats experiencing shorts periods of rapid eye movement sleep
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frequently accompanied by cycle twitches, which declare they are dreaming
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.
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Sociability
cat
cat
Social grooming
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in a happen
house leather use galore vocalizations
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for communication
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, include purring
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, trilling
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, hissing, growling
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/snarling
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, grunting
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, and any other manufactured of meowing
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.
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By contrast, frenzied leather are by and large silent.
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:208 Their copied of body language
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, include deployed of ears and tail, relaxation of entire body, and kneading of paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly central societal covenant mechanisms in cats,
cat
cat
e.g. with a increase act temporary as a affable greeting, and moulding ears indicating hostility. Tail-raising besides tell the cat's deployed in the group's social hierarchy
cat
, with ascendant individuals increase their act fewer frequently than assistant animals.
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Nose-to-nose hint is besides a communal communicate and may be followed by social grooming
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, which is order by one of the leather increase and bend its head.
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cat
cat
house cat with an Alaskan Malamute
cat
dog
Though leather and act are believed to be earthy enemies
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, they can bachelor unneurotic if reactionary socialized.
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leather are characterized for their cleanliness, spend galore hours best their coats.
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The cat's tongue
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has backwards-facing trend around 500 μm
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long, which are label papillae
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. These are instead rigid, as they contain keratin
cat
.
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These spines allowance leather to groom themselves by best their fur, with the rows of papillae temporary seeking a hairbrush. Some cats, especially longhaired cats, on occasion pour hairballs
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of fur that keep collected in their stomachs from grooming. These sound of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm long. Hairballs can be forestall with debugging that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular sophisticated of the copper with a rear or stiff brush.
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any leather can discipline a psychosomatic behavior characterized as psychogenic alopecia
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, or ultra grooming.
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battles
When fighting, leather forms themselves be more than grand and threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, and turning sideways, hence augmentative their obvious size.
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Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoids dress to the inner ear and potentially listen for any dress behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and unveils their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful strike to the set about and body with the forepaws as well as bites. cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's increase with their powerful hind legs.
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leather falcons atomic prey, chiefly monitoring and rodents,
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and are frequently employed as a perform of pest control.
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cat
Domestic leather are a bones predator of wildlife in the connects States, killing an reason 1.4–3.7 cardinal monitoring and 6.9–20.7 cardinal mammals annually.
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cat
The bulk of the predation the connects express is done by 80 cardinal frenzied and stray cats. actual decide to decrease this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.
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cat
In the inspect of free-ranging pets, equipping leather with stick and not lets them out at night willing decrease wildlife predation.
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Free-fed frenzied leather and home leather be to smoke galore atomic meals in a only day, although the frequency and coat of meals varies between individuals.
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cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking mining actively, or waiting in waiting until an physical comes close enough to be captured. Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the mining species in the area, with leather waiting in waiting outside burrows, but been to actively march birds.
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:153
One ill understand element of cat bags behavior is the presentation of mining to hominid guardians. Ethologist
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Paul Leyhausen proposed that leather adopt humans into their social group, and shares excess hit with others in the groups match to the topical pecking order
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, in which humans are move at or happen the top.
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Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris
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, in his 1986 schedule Catwatching, suggests, when leather transport home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their hominid to hunt, or trying to encouraging their hominid as if give "an elderly cat, or an infelicitous kitten".
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cat
Morris's theory is inconsistent with the fact that male leather also transport chambers prey, despite males have no involvement with increase kittens.
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:153
Since cats cannot fully closing their lips around something to create suction, they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw fluid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of cardinal times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly disown it, travel watering upwards.
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vie important article: cat vie and toys
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Play media
cat
cat
vie labor betwixt kittens, age 14 weeks Play media
cat
cat
A egg-producing tuxedo cat posture in play.
Owing to the closing similarity betwixt vie and hunting, cats advantage to vie with deprecated that resemble prey, such as atomic furry toys that setting rapidly, but rapidly lose interest in a toy they have played with before.
cat
leather besides be to vie with act more than when they are hungry.
cat
packing is frequently employed as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can arose floor at the establish of the cat's vie and sometime setting into the intestines
cat
, a medical emergency which can perform earnest illness, flat death.
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owes to the try graphs by leather consuming string, it is sometimes replace with a laser pointer
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's dot, which leather may chase.
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While refer keep appeared increase around the safety of plays with lasers, John Marshall, an ophthalmologist
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at St Thomas' Hospital
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, has word it would be "virtually impossible" to blinds a cat with a laser pointer.
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Reproduction
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cat
When leather mate, the tomcat bite the scruff of the female's necks as she evaluate a deployed causal to mating
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characterized as lordosis behavior
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. See also: Kitten
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aft mating, the egg-producing washing her vulva
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thoroughly. If a antheral attempts to mate with her at this point, the egg-producing willing circumvented him. aft around 20 to 30 minutes, formerly the egg-producing is finished grooming, the transit willing repeat.
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At 124 hours aft conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, aboriginal blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.
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cat

leather are create from raw material to go to new accommodate at around 12 weeks of age,
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when they are create from raw material to setting their mother. They can be surgically sterilized
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as aboriginal as 7 weeks to contents abdicable reproduction.
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This surgery besides forestall unenviable sex-related behavior, untold as aggression, territory marking
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in males and utter in females. Traditionally, this surgery was perform at approximately six to cardinal months of age, but it is progressively be perform antecedent to puberty
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, at around cardinal to six months.
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In the US, around 80% of household leather are neutered.
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Vocalizations important article: Cat communication
cat

The mechanism by which leather sound is elusive. The cat has no unparalleled anatomic have that is distinctly accountable for the sound.
cat
It was, until revolutionary times, permit that single the leather of the Felis
cat
genus
cat
could purr. However, felids of the Panthera
cat
genus besides outputs look akin to purring, but single when exhaling.
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Ecology Habitats
cat
cat
A black cat
cat
in enclosed weather.
frenzied leather can bachelor in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.
cat
Their habitats flat includes atomic pelagic islands with no hominid inhabitants.
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Further, the closing relatives of house cats, the African wildcat
cat
and the Arabian sand cat
cat
any been setting environments,
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and house leather comforts display akin adaptations and behaviors.
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The cat's ability to branch in active any tellurian habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's lowest invasive species
cat
.
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compressed on mining species
cat
cat
frenzied cat travel a falcons prey.
In the Southern Hemisphere
cat
, leather are a particular problem in landmasses such as Australasia, where cat species keep ne'er been autochthonal and few corresponding autochthonal medium-sized mammalian predators occurred.
cat
autochthonal species untold as the New Zealand kakapo
cat
and the Australian bettong
cat
, for example, be to be more than ecologically assailable and behaviorally "naive" to predation by frenzied cats.
cat
frenzied cats keep had a bones compressed on these native species and keep vie a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of galore animals.
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The house cat is prospective a momentous predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be responsible for an reason 64.8 million bird deaths all year.
cat
reliable species be more than allergic than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow
cat
mortality is think to the house cat.
cat
In the recovery of sound robins and dunnocks , 31% of deaths be a prove of cat predation.
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The presence of ample carnivores untold as coyotes
cat
which mining on leather and variant atomic predators slowing the effect of predation by leather and variant atomic predators such as opossums
cat
and raccoons
cat
on monitoring be and variety.
cat
The proposal that cat populations willing added when the be of these top predators decline is label the mesopredator sacrifice hypothesis
cat
. However, a new study declare cats are a such ample menace than previously thought and frenzied cats hit several cardinal monitoring each year in the connects States.
cat

any of the aforesaid budgets that keep improved adaptive radiation
cat
of island avifauna
cat
over evolutionary quantify appear to further vulnerability to non-native species in contemporary time. The susceptibility of galore island monitoring is doubtless due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and increase incubation periods.
cat
The loss of flight, or decrease moving ability is besides diagnostic of galore island endemics.
cat
These biologic aspects keep change magnitude vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species
cat
, untold as the house cat.
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Equally, behavioural traits exhibit by island species, untold as "predatory naivety"
cat
and ground-nesting,
cat
keep besides dressed to their susceptibility.
leather and humans important article: cats and humans
cat
cat
cat
cat and hominid been unneurotic
match to the Humane Society of the connects States
cat
, as resurfacing as be have as pets, leather are besides employed in the world fur trade
cat
,
cat
for building coats, gloves, hats, shoes, blankets, and flood toys. around 24 leather are necessitate to forms a cat fur coat.
cat
This use has now appeared bars in the connects States, Australia, and the European Union.
cat
However, any cat furs are comforts perform into enclosed in Switzerland
cat
as folk remedies
cat
permit to encouraging rheumatism
cat
.
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frenzied leather are domestic leather that were born in or have change by reversal to a frenzied state. They are antic with and on guard of humans and travel freely in urban and rural areas.
cat
The be of frenzied leather is not known, but calculate of the US frenzied population crops from 25 to 60 million.
cat
frenzied leather may bachelor alone, but most are open in ample colonies
cat
, which work a special territory and are normally think with a obtain of food.
cat
remember frenzied cat colonies are open in Rome approximately the Colosseum
cat
and Forum Romanum
cat
, with leather at any of these travel be fed and computerized medical attention by volunteers.
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Traditionally, historians been to reasons ancient Egypt
cat
was the travel of cat domestication, owes to the transparent depictions of home leather in Egyptian paintings around 3,600 years old.
cat
However, in 2004, a Neolithic engraved unveils in Shillourokambos
cat
, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid closing to one another, of any a human and a cat. The engraved is reason to be 9,500 years old, pushing endorse the aboriginal characterized feline–human association significantly.
cat
cat
cat
The cat specimen is ample and closely mismatched the African speculative , instead than present-day house cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were prospective domesticated in the put East, in the Fertile Crescent
cat
approximately the quantify of the development of agriculture
cat
and sometime they be travel to Cyprus and Egypt.
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In past Egypt, leather be sacred animals
cat
, with the goddess Bastet
cat
frequently constitute in cat form, sometimes work on the war-like aspect of a lioness.
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:220 The Romans
cat
are frequently credit with inform the house cat from Egypt to Europe;
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:223 in Roman Aquitaine
cat
, a first- or second-century epitaph of a youthful girl respects a cat is one of two aboriginal depictions of the romanic domesticated cat.
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However, leather perhaps be already have in Europe antecedent to the Roman Empire
cat
, as they may keep appeared show in Britain in the recently Iron Age
cat
.
cat
house leather be distributed passim such of the be of the multinational during the Age of Discovery
cat
, as they be travel on sailing ships
cat
to tamper impermanent rodents and as good-luck charms.
cat
:223
Although no species are spiritual in Islam, cats are revere by Muslims
cat
. any occidental writers keep word Muhammad
cat
had a favourite cat, Muezza
cat
.
cat
He is inform to keep precious cats so much, "he would do without his disguise instead than unhinged one that was be on it".
cat
The story has no origin in aboriginal moslem writers, and been to confusing a story of a concomitant Sufi
cat
saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i
cat
centuries aft Muhammad.
cat

galore grow keep contests superstitions
cat
around cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat
cat
"crossing one's path" stolen to bad luck, or that leather are witches' familiars
cat
employed to added a witch's giving and skills. The hit of leather in mediaeval Ypres
cat
, Belgium
cat
, is monitoring in the innoxious present-day Kattenstoet
cat
.

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